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Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases

Non-thematic Research

  1. Molecular and morphologic characterization of coccidial oocysts isolated from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other bovids of South Africa using the 18S rRNA gene

    Using conventional autofluorescence microscopy, Eimeria spp. that occur in both buffalo and cattle at various locations in South Africa are identified. These are then characterized molecularly using PCR sequence data derived from the 18S rRNA gene.

    Dave Lorom (MSc student), Banie Penzhorn (supervisor), Marinda Oosthuizen (co-supervisor), Rhulani Nkuna


  1. Antibody phage-displayed libraries derived form chicken immunoglobulin genes as a source of highly specific diagnostic antibodies.

    Recombinant antibody technology has proven to be a viable alternative to traditional hybridoma methods as a way of creating highly specific diagnostic reagents. The avian antibody repertoire is relatively easy to access because of the way birds generate immunoglobulin diversity by gene conversion. This projects aims to determine whether high-affinity chicken single-chain Fvs directed against a number of different diagnostic targets can be derived from a single immune bird. Accordingly, a chicken is to be immunised with a number of different antigens and its splenocytes used as a source of mRNA from which a filamentous phage library displaying single-chain Fv antibody fragments can be constructed. The resulting library will be screened for binders which can be incorporated into a variety of immunoassay formats. The proposed approach is expected to yield affinity-matured binders and can potentially provide a focussed alternative to large "universal" repertoires as a source useful of antibody fragments.

    Thamsanqa Chiliza (MSc student), Dion du Plessis (supervisor, ARC-OVI)

    Collaborating institution:

Immunology Division, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council


Department of Science and Technology

  1. The prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and humans in Maputo Province, Mozambique, using serological methods and detection of nucleic acids

    Anabela Manhiça (MSc student), Moritz van Vuuren (supervisor), Jacques Godfroid (co-supervisor), L. Perreira (co-supervisor; Directorate of Animal Health, Maputo)

    Collaborating institution:

Directorate of Animal Health, Maputo, Mozambique


Swedish International Development Agency

Recent publications:


MURAINA IA, PICARD J, ELOFF JN. 2009. Development of a reproducible method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extract against a slow-growing mycoplasmas organism. Phytomedicine 16:262-264

ZIVKOVIC Z, BLOUIN EF, MANZANO-ROMAN R, ALMAZÁN C, NARANJO V, MASSUNG RF, JONGEJAN F, KOCAN KM, DE LA FUENTE J. 2009. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale elicit different gene expression responses in cultured tick cells. Comparative and Functional Genomics 705034: 9 pages

NGERANWA JJN , SHOMPOLE SP, VENTER EH , WAMBUGU A, CRAFFORD JE , PENZHORN BL . 2008. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 75: 199-205

PURCHASE C, PICARD J , MCDONALD R, BISSCHOP SPR. 2008. A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79:39-43

MEYERS B, SCHOEMAN JP, GODDARD A, PICARD J. 2008. The bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility of infected and non-infected dog bite wounds: Fifty cases. Veterinary Microbiology 127:360-368

BUTLER CM, NIJHOF AM, GOEHRING L, JONGEJAN F , VAN DER KOLK JH. 2008. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in horses in the Netherlands . Veterinary Record 162:216-218

IBIRONKE AA, MCCRINDLE CME, FASINA FO, GODFROID J . 2008. Evaluation of problems and possible solutions linked to the surveillance and control of bovine brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on Nigeria. Veterinaria Italiana 44:549-556


VAN DYK E, OOSTHUIZEN MC, BOSMAN A-M, NEL PJ, ZIMMERMAN D, VENTER EH. 2009. Detection of bovine papillomavirus DNA in sarcoid-affected and healthy free-roaming zebra (Equus zebra) populations in South Africa. Journal of Virological Methods 158:141-151

WOMA TY, VAN VUUREN M. 2009. Isolation of canine distemper viruses from domestic dogs in South Africa using Vero.DogSLAM cells and its application to diagnosis. African Journal of Microbiology Research 3:111-118

ADAMS, H, VAN VUUREN, M, BOSMAN A-M, KEET D, NEW J, KENNEDY M. 2009. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Pantera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 80:151-156

LE GOFF C, LAMIEN CE, FAKHFAKH E, CHADEYRAS A, ABA-ADULUGBA E, LIBEAU G, TUPPURAINEN E, WALLACE DB, ADAM T, SILBER R, GULYAZ V, MADANI H, CAUFOUR P, HAMMAMI S, DIALLO A, ALBINA E. 2009. Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination. Journal of General Virology 90:1967-1977

BABIUK S, WALLACE DB, SMITH SJ, BOWDEN TR, DALMAN B, PARKYN G, COPPS J, BOYLE DB. 2009. Detection of antibodies against capripoxviruses using an inactivated sheeppox virus ELISA. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 56:132-141

BABIUK S, BOWDEN TR, BOYLE DB, WALLACE DB , KITCHING RP. 2008. Capripoxviruses: An emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 55:263-272

ESTRADA-PENA A, ZATANSEVER Z, GARGILI A, AKTAS M, UZUN R, ERGONUL O, JONGEJAN F . 2007. Modeling the spatial distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Turkey . Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7:667-678


ELOFF JN, MASOKO P, PICARD J . 2007. Resistance of animal fungal pathogens to solvents used in bioassays. South African Journal of Botany 73:667-669

MASOKO P, PICARD J , ELOFF JN. 2007. The antifungal activity of twenty-four southern African Combretum species (Combretaceae). South African Journal of Botany 73:173-183


COLWELL DD, OTRANTO D, HORAK IG . 2007. Comparative scanning electron micrososcopy of Gasterophilus third instars. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 21:255-264

MATTHEE S, HORAK IG , BEAUCOURNU J-C, DUREN LA, UEKERMANN EA MCGEOCH MA (2007) Epifaunistic arthropod parasites of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio , in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Parasitology 93:47-59


LANGELAAR M, ARANZAMENDI C, FRANSSEN F, VAN DERGIESSEN J, RUTTEN V, VAN DER LEY P, PINELLI E. 2009. Suppression of dendritic cell maturation by Trichinella spiralis excretory⁄secretory products. Parasite Immunology 1:641-645

JEX AR, WAESCHENBACH A, HU M, VAN WYK JA, BEVERIDGE I, LITTLEWOOD DTJ, GASSER RB. 2009. The mitochondrial genomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phelebotom – two hookworms of animal health and zoonotic importance. BMC Genomics 10:79


LEISEWITZ AL , ROCKETT K, KWIATKOWSKI D. 2008. BCG-malaria co-infection has paradoxical effects on C57BL/6 and A/J mouse strains. Parasite Immunology 30:1-12

ABU SAMRA N, McCRINDLE CME, PENZHORN BL , CENCI-GOGA B. 2007. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa . Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 78:116-120


BOTHA CJ, PENRITH ML. 2009. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 80:63-74

BOTHA CJ, PENRITH M-L. 2008, Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in southern Africa . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119:549-558

BOTHA CJ, CRAFFORD JE , BUTLER VP, STOJANOVIC MN, LABUSCHAGNE L. 2007. A potential krimpsoekte vaccine. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 74:307-314


ENTRICAN G, LUNNEY JK, RUTTEN VP, BALDWIN CL. 2009. A current perspective on availability of tools, resources and networks for veterinary immunology. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 128:24-29

VAN ENGELEN E, BREEVELD-DWARKASING VNA, EVERTS ME, VAN DER WEYDEN GC, TAVERNE MAM, RUTTEN VPMG. 2009. Smooth muscle cells of the bovine cervical stroma may have a secretory, rather than a contractile function during parturition. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44:303-311

SCHLOTTER YM, RUTTEN VPMG, RIEMERS F, DAVENPORT G, KNOL EF, WILLEMSE T. 2009. Altered expression of fatty acid desaturases in the skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Dermatological Science 54:43-63

SCHLOTTER YM, VEENHOF EZ, BRINKHOF B, RUTTEN VPMG, SPEE B, WILLEMSE T, PENNING LC. 2009. A GeNorm algorithm-based selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in skin biopsies of healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 129:115-118

LOORINGH VAN BEECK FA, REININK P, HERMSEN R, ZAJONC DM, LAVEN MJ, FUN A, TROSKIE M, SCHOEMAKER NJ, MORAR D, LENSTRA JA, VERVELDE L, RUTTEN VPMG, VAN EDEN W, VAN RHIJN I. 2009. Functional CD1d and/or NKT cell invariant chain transcript in horse, pig, African elephant and guinea pig, but not in ruminants. Molecular Immunology 46:1424-1431

HOEK A, RUTTEN VPMG, KOOL J, ARKESTEIJN GJA, BOUWSTRA RJ, VAN RHIJN IV, KOETS AP. 2009. Subpopulations of bovine WC1+ ׃ T cells rather than CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ T cells act as immune regulatory cells ex vivo. Veterinary Research 40:06

VAN ENGELEN, DE GROOT MW, BREEVELD-DWARKASING VNA, EVERTS ME, VAN DER WEYDEN GC, TAVERNE MAM, RUTTEN VPMG. 2008. Cervical ripening and parturition in cows are driven by a cascade of pro-inflammatory cytokines.  Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44:834-841

LOORING VAN BEECK FA, ZAJONE DM, MOORE PF, SCHLOTTER YM, BROERE F, RUTTEN VPMG , WILLEMSE T, VAN RHIJN I. 2008. Two canine CD1a proteins are differentially expressed in skin. Immunogenetics 60:315-324

VAN ENGELEN E, BREEVELD-DWARKASING VNA, TAVERNE MAM, EVERTS ME, VAN DER WEIJDEN GC, RUTTEN VPMG . 2008, MMP-2 Expression precedes the final ripening process of the Bovine cervix. Molecular Reproduction and Development 75:1669-1677

JASSIES-VAN DER LEE A, RUTTEN V , VAN KOOTEN P, VAN DER ZEE R, WILLEMSE T. 2008. Intradermal injection of Hsp60 induces cytokine responses in canine atopic and healthy skin. Cell Stress and Chaperones 13:387-391