University of Pretoria Logo
English |  Afrikaans |    
  
Instituut vir Internasionale Reg en Regsvergelyking in Afrika

Domestic laws on the use of force by law enforcement officials: Index

During 2014 the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, initiated a study on the provisions of the domestic laws of UN member states on the use of force by law enforcement officials. The report to the Human Rights Council based on this study will be available on the website of the mandate, http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/executions/pages/srexecutionsindex.aspx.

The aim of the study - which will be continued in future years - is to establish to what extent these laws comply with the international standards on such use of force, and in particular the Code of Conduct of Law Enforcement Officials, 1979, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/LawEnforcementOfficials.aspx and the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, 1989, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/UseOfForceAndFirearms.aspx.  

The long-term goal is to stimulate and facilitate efforts to bring national laws, where appropriate, into closer conformity with the international standards. Hopefully this website will provide those engaged in such reforms with a first stop in the - often difficult - process of establishing what the applicable laws are in a specific country, and for the sake of comparison, what it is in other countries.

Several States have provided copies of their laws, and NGOs, academics and others have also contributed. Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee that all of the laws that appear here are still in force, and have not been amended. Whether this is the case will have to be determined afresh by each researcher visiting the site.

Please find below an index to the laws that have already been obtained.

The website is still under construction and will soon be set up in such a way that it will be possible to gain access to the each one of the laws by clicking on its name.

States, civil society groups, and individuals are encouraged to provide commentary on the index (for example pointing out that more laws should be added, or that some laws provided have been amended or repealed) and to send copies of laws that should be included in the list  - in the original language, with a translation of the title into English and if possible a translation of the text as well - to the following email address: Kathleen.hardy@up.ac.za.

An obvious limitation of the material provided here is that the fact that specific statutes contain certain provisions does not provide any indication about whether those laws are applied in practice. Moreover, in many States legislation is not the only source of law; legal decisions may, for example, also be part of the law. Sub-ordinate legislation and operational orders and even police training manuals may in practice have a strong influence on the situation on the ground. For practical reasons this index does not contain this additional material, and the information provided should be seen at most as a starting point for any attempt to get the full picture on the ground.


COUNTRIES LAWS
Africa Group:
ALGERIA Penal Code (1966)
Penal Procedure Code (1966)
ANGOLA Penal Code
BENIN Laws not yet available
BOTSWANA Penal Code (1964)
Police Act (1979)
Public Order Act (1967)
BURKINA FASO Laws not yet available
BURUNDI Penal Code (1981, 2009)
Penal Procedure Code (2009)
Police Code (2005)
CABO VERDE Penal Code (2003)
CAMEROON Maintenance and Order of Assemblies Cameroon (1990)
Criminal Procedure Code
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Laws not yet available
CHAD Laws not yet available
COMOROS Penal Code (1981)
CONGO Police Act (2010)
COTE D'IVOIRE Statute of Personnel of National Police Côte d'Ivoire (2001)
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Decree Regulating Demonstration and Public Meetings Democratic Republic of Congo (1999)
DJIBOUTI Penal Code
Penal Procedure Code
EGYPT Penal Code (1937)
Demonstrations Law (2013)
EQUATORIAL GUINEA Penal Code (1963)
ERITREA Laws not yet available
ETHIOPIA Criminal Code (2004)
Criminal Procedure Code
GABON Laws not yet available
GAMBIA Laws not yet available
GHANA Police Handbook
GUINEA Laws not yet available
GUINEA-BISSAU Laws not yet available
KENYA National Police Service Act
Public Order Act (2003)
LESOTHO Penal Code (2010)
LIBERIA Criminal Procedure Law (1969)
Penal Code (1978)
LIBYA Laws not yet available
MADAGASCAR Police Service Regulations
MALAWI Penal Code (1930)
MALI Laws not yet available
MAURITANIA Laws not yet available
MAURITIUS Criminal Code (1838)
Police Act (1974)
MOROCCO Penal Code (2011)
MOZAMBIQUE Statute of Police (1999)
NAMIBIA Criminal Procedure Act (2004)
Police Act (1990)
Prisons Act (1998)
NIGER Criminal Code (2000)
Penal Code (2004)
Penal Procedure Code (2004)
NIGERIA Criminal Procedure (N. States) Act Nigeria (1960)
Criminal Code (1990)
Criminal Procedure Code (1990)
Penal Code (1966)
Police Act (1967)
Prisons Act
Public Order Act
RWANDA Criminal Procedure Code (2003)
Law on Establishment, General Organisation and Jurisdiction of National Police Rwanda (2000)
Organic Law Instituting the Penal Code Rwanda (2012)
Political Organisations and Politicians Law Rwanda (2007)
Presidential Order 155 on Statutes Governing National Police Rwanda (2002)
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE Laws not yet available
SENEGAL Code of Criminal Procedure (1965)
SEYCHELLES Criminal Procedure Code (1955)
Penal Code (1953)
SIERRA LEONE Corporal Punishment Act (1953)
Criminal Procedure Act (1965)
National Drugs Control Act (2008)
Public Order Act (1965)
SOMALIA Criminal Procedure Code (1962)
Prison Law (1971)
Public Order Law (1963)
Organisation of the Police Force Somalia (1972)
SOUTH AFRICA Safety at Sports and Recreational Events Act (2010)
Correctional Services Act (2012)
Criminal Procedure Act (1977)
Policing Standards (1995)
Prisons Act (1998)
Regulation of Gatherings Act (1993)
SOUTH SUDAN Prisons Act (2003)
Police Act (2003)
Penal Code (2008)
Criminal Procedure Code (2008)
SUDAN Khartoum Public Order Act Sudan (1998)
Criminal Procedure Code (2003)
Penal Code (2003)
Police General Regulations (2003)
Police Act (2003)
SWAZILAND Laws not yet available
TOGO Criminal Code (1980)
Criminal Procedure Code (1960)
National Police Act (2007)
TUNISIA Penal Code (2005)
Penal Procedure Code (1968)
Security Sector Legislation
UGANDA Penal Code (1950)
Police Act (1994)
Prisons Act (2006)
Public Order Management Bill Uganda (2011)
UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA Laws not yet available
ZAMBIA Laws not yet available
ZIMBABWE Public Order and Security Act
Criminal Procedure Code
Public Order Act
Prisons Act
Latin America and the Caribbean Group (GRULAC):
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA Criminal Procedure Act
Death Sentence Act
Police Act (1952)
Prevention of Crimes Act (1874)
Prevention of Terrorism Act (2005)
Public Order Act (1972)
Riot Act (1897)
ARGENTINA Code of conduct for law enforcement officials (1979)
Code of Criminal Procedure (1991)
Criminal Code (1984)
Internal Security Act National Law of Weapons and Explosives (1973)
Protocol of Federal Preservation Security Forces Preservation (2008)
Decree Law on Weapons and Explosives (1973)
Regulatory Decree of Law of National Gendarmerie (2001)
Organic Law for the Federal Police
Administrative Guidelines for the restriction of the possession and transport of the weapon- assigned to the staff of the Argentine Federal Police (2013)
Law for the staff of the Argentine federal police (1979)
Regulations under the act for the staff of the argentine federal police (1983)
General Regulation of weapons and shooting
Standard operating procedure for security forces
General law of the Prefectura Naval Argentina (1969)
Code of conduct for law enforcement officials (2008)
(Additional material provided by the government)
BAHAMAS Penal Code (2010)
BARBADOS Public Order Act (1970)
BELIZE Control of Public Meetings and Public Processions Act Belize (1967)
Criminal Code
Public Safety Act (1935)
Riots Compensation Act (1895)
BOLIVIA (PLURINATIONATIONAL STATE OF) Penal Code
BRAZIL Laws not yet available
CHILE Penal Code (1874)
Codigo de Conducta par Funcionarios encardos de hacer cumplir la ley ("Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials") (1979)
Fuego par los Functionarios encargados de hacer complir la ley (1990)
Circular: Uso de la Fuerza Imparte Instrucciones al respecto ("Circular: Use of Force Instructions") (2013)
(Additional material provided by the government)
COLOMBIA Laws not yet available
COSTA RICA Penal Code (1970)
CUBA (Material provided by the government)
DOMINICA Criminal Law an procedure Act (1992)
Police Act (1940)
Public Order Act (1954)
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Laws not yet available
ECUADOR Penal Code (1971)
Penal Procedure Code
Penal Code of the National Police Ecuador (1960)
(Additional material provided by the government)
EL SALVADOR Penal Code (1983)
Penal Procedure Code (1983)
Special Law Against Acts of Terrorism El Salvador
GRENADA Laws not yet available
GUATEMALA Protocolo de Actuacion interinstitucional apoyo del ejercito fuerzas de seguridad civil ("Interagency Action Protocol: Support of the army civilian security forces") (2012)
Protocolo de Actuacion policial ("Protocol of Policing") (2012)
Protocolo de disolucion de masas ("Protocol of dissolution of masses")
(Additional material provided by the government)
GUYANA Laws not yet available
HAITI Laws not yet available
HONDURAS Laws not yet available
JAMAICA Riot Act (1857)
MEXICO Military Justice Code (1933)
Penal Code (1931)
(Additional material provided by the government)
NICARAGUA Criminal Procedure Code (2001)
Penal Code (2008)
Police Act (1996)
PANAMA Penal Code
Penal Procedure Code
PARAGUAY Penal Code (1997)
Penal Procedure Code (1981)
PERU Criminal Procedure Code (2003)
Penal Code (1991)
Anti-Terrorism Act (1997)
SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS Police Act (2002)
SAINT LUCIA Criminal Code (2004)
Criminal Procedure Code
SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Laws not yet available
SURINAME Laws not yet available
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Criminal Law Act
Criminal Procedure Act (1925)
Prisons Act (1900)
URUGUAY Criminal Procedure Code (1980)
Penal Code
VENEZUELA (BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF ) Penal Code
Penal Procedure Code
Asia-Pacific Group:
AFGHANISTAN Interim Criminal Code (2004)
Penal Code (1976)
Police Law (2005)
Law on Social Organisations Afghanistan (2002)
BAHRAIN Criminal Procedure Code (2002)
Penal Code (1976)
BANGLADESH Penal Code (1860)
Police Act (1861)
BHUTAN Penal Code Amendment (2011)
Penal Code (2011)
Police Act (2009)
BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Penal Code (1951)
Public Order Act (1998)
CAMBODIA Penal Code
CHINA Laws not yet available
CYPRUS Code of Police Ethics (2001)
(Additional material provided by the government)
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA Laws not yet available
FIJI Laws not yet available
INDIA Criminal Procedure Code (1973)
Penal Code (1860)
INDONESIA Penal Code
Police Regulations (2009)
IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF) Penal Code (1982)
IRAQ Criminal Procedure Code (1971)
Penal Code (1969)
(Additional material provided by the government)
JAPAN Laws not yet available
JORDAN Laws not yet available
KAZAKHSTAN Penal Code (2004)
KUWAIT Laws not yet available
KYRGYZSTAN Laws not yet available
LAO PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC Criminal Procedure (2004)
Penal Law (1990)
LEBANON Criminal Law
Criminal Procedure Code (2001)
MALAYSIA Criminal Procedure Code (1935)
Penal Code (1936)
Police Act (1967)
Public Order Preservation Act Malaysia (1958)
MALDIVES Penal Code
MARSHALL ISLANDS Laws not yet available
MICRONESIA (FEDERATED STATES OF) Laws not yet available
MONGOLIA Criminal Code
MYANMAR Penal Code (1860)
NAURU Correctional Services Act (2009)
Criminal Code (2011)
Criminal Procedure Act (1972)
Police Force Act (1972)
NEPAL Police Act (1955)
Prisons Act (1963)
Civil Rights Act (1955)
Armed Police Force Act (2001)
OMAN Penal Code (1974)
Penal Procedure Law (1999)
PAKISTAN Anti-terrorism Act (1997)
Criminal Procedure Code (1898)
Penal Code (1860)
Police Order Act (2002)
Maintenance of Public Order Ordinance West Pakistan (1960)
(Additional material provided by the government)
PALAU Laws not yet available
PAPUA NEW GUINEA Criminal Code (1974)
Police Act (1998)
PHILIPPINES Criminal Procedure (2000)
Penal Code (1930)
National Police Operational Procedures
QATAR (Material provided by the government)
REPUBLIC OF KOREA Penal Code (1998)
SAMOA Criminal Procedure Act (1972)
District Courts Act (2010)
Police Service Act (2009)
SAUDI ARABIA Law of Criminal Procedure Saudi Arabia (2001)
SINGAPORE Criminal Procedure Act (2010)
Penal Code (1871)
Police Force Act (2004)
Prisons Act (2011)
Armed Force Act (1975)
Civil Defence Act (1986)
SOLOMON ISLANDS Counter Terrorism Act Solomon Islands (2009)
Penal Code
Prisons Act (1978)
Preservation of Public Security Act Solomon Islands (1967)
Procession and Public Assemblies Act Solomon Islands (1978)
SRI LANKA Criminal Procedure Code (special provisions) (2007)
Criminal Procedure Code (1979)
Penal Code (1883)
Prisons Act (1877)
(Additional material provided by government)
SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC (Material provided by the government)
TAJIKISTAN Criminal Executive Code (2011)
Law on Combatting Terrorism
THAILAND Criminal Procedure Code
TIMOR-LESTE Criminal Procedure Code (2005)
Penal Code (2009)
Organic Law of National Police Timor-Leste 2004
TONGA Criminal Offences Act (1926)
Police Act (2010)
Police Powers and Duties Act Kiribati (2008)
TURKMENISTAN Laws not yet available
TUVALU Criminal Procedure Code (1963)
Penal Code (1955)
Public Ordinance (1965)
Prison Ordinance (1985)
Public Order (1973)
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Penal Code (1987)
Decree on Combating Terrorism United Arab Emirates (2004)
UZBEKISTAN Criminal Code (1994)
Criminal Procedure Law (1994)
Law on the Security Service Uzbekistan (1992)
VANUATU Counter Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Vanuatu (2006)
Criminal Procedure Act (1981)
Penal Code (1981)
Police Act (1980)
VIETNAM Criminal Procedure Code (2003)
Penal Code (1999)
YEMEN Laws not yet available
Eastern European Group:
ALBANIA Organization and Functioning of Police Albania (1997)
Criminal Code (1995)
Criminal Procedure Code
Law on Demonstrations (2001)
Law on State Police (2007)
ARMENIA Law on Assemblies, Rallies Armenia (2010)
Anti-Terrorism Law
Criminal Procedure Code
Police Act (2004)
Law on the Treatment of Detainees and Arrestees Armenia (2002)
AZERBAIJAN Criminal Code
Criminal Procedure Code (2004)
Police Act
Law on Freedom of Assembly Azerbaijan
BELARUS Law on Mass Actions (1997)
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Statute of the Brcko District Bosnia
Law on the Judicial Police (excerpts) Bosnia
Law on Police of the Brcko District Bosnia
Law on Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton Bosnia
Law on Internal Affairs of Sarajevo Canton Bosnia
Law on Internal Affairs of Posavina Canton Bosnia
Act on Public Assembly Sarajevo Canton Bosnia
BULGARIA Code Of Ethics For Officials Of The Ministry Of The Interior With Police Functions Directorate Bulgaria (2004)
Law On Gatherings, Meetings And Manifestations Bulgaria (1990)
CROATIA Law on Police (2000)
CZECH REPUBLIC Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms Czech Republic
Police Act (1991)
ESTONIA Police and Border Guard Act Estonia (2003)
Criminal Procedure Code (2003)
Penal Code (2001)
(Additional material provided by the government)
GEORGIA Law on Assemblage and Manifestations Georgia (1997)
Criminal Code
Georgian Police Code of Ethics (2013)
(Additional material provided by the government)
HUNGARY Criminal Code (1978)
Criminal Procedure Code (1998)
LATVIA Criminal Procedure Code (2009)
Police Act (1992)
Law on Meetings, Street Processions, Pickets Latvia (2003)
LITHUANIA Criminal Code (2000)
Police Activities Act (2008)
Law on Police
MONTENEGRO Criminal Code (2005)
Public Assemblies Act (2005)
POLAND Criminal Procedure Code (1997)
Penal Code (1997)
REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA Code of Administrative Offences Moldova (1985)
Criminal Code (2002)
Law on Organisation and Conduct of Assemblies Moldova (1995)
ROMANIA Criminal Code (2004)
Criminal Procedure Code
Laws on Public Order, National Defence and Security (combined) Romania
RUSSIAN FEDERATION Federal Law on Federal Security Service Russia (1995)
Criminal Code (1996)
Criminal Procedure Code (2001)
Code of Administrative Offences Russia (2001)
Federal Law on Operational Search Activities Russia (1998)
Federal Law on Rallies, Meetings, Demonstrations, Marches and Picketing Russia (2004)
(Additional material provided by the government)
SERBIA Criminal Code (2005)
Criminal Procedure Code (2011)
Police Act (2005)
Public assemblies Act (1992)
Amendments to Criminal Procedure Code Serbia (2009)
SLOVAKIA Criminal Procedure Code
SLOVENIA Criminal Code
Penal Code (2004)
Police Act (1998)
Public Assemblies Act
THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA Laws not yet available
UKRAINE Criminal Code (2001)
Criminal Procedure Code (1961)
Western European and Others Group (WEOG):
ANDORRA Principles and Functions of Judicial Police Units Andorra
Penal Code
AUSTRALIA Terrorism (Emergency Powers) Act Northern Territory of Australia (2009)
Criminal Law Consolidation Act South Australia (1935)
Unlawful Assemblies and Processions Act Victoria (1958)
Criminal Code Act Compilation Act Western Australia (1913)
Crimes Act (1914)
Public Order Act (1971)
Federal Police Act (1979)
Crimes Act (South Wales) (1900)
Criminal Code (Northern Territory) (2013)
Criminal Code (Queensland) (1899)
Criminal Code (Tasmania) (1924)
Crimes Act (Victoria) (1958)
Implementation of Human Rights Principles
Police Power and Responsibilities Act (Queensland)
AUSTRIA Criminal Code (1998)
Basic Law on the General Rights of Nationals Austria (1867)
(Additional material provided by the government)
BELGIUM Police Act (1992)
Law of Public Safety and Convenience of Passage Belgium
CANADA Criminal Code
Police Services Act
DENMARK Laws not yet available
FINLAND Laws not yet available
FRANCE Laws not yet available
GERMANY Law on Assemblies and Processions Germany (1953)
Criminal Code (1998)
Criminal Procedure Code (1987)
Federal Police Act (1994) Act Concerning the Use of Coercive Force and the Exercise of Special Powers by Bundeswehr Military Personnel, Allied Forces and Civilian Guard Personnel (1965)
Act on the Use of Direct Force by Federal Police Officers Exercising Public Authority (1961)
Federal Disciplinary Law (2001)
State Disciplinary Laws (2002)
State Police Laws (2004)
(Additional material provided by the government)
GREECE Code on Police Ethics (2004)
(Additional material provided by the government)
ICELAND Penal Code (1940)
Police Act (1996)
IRELAND (Material provided by the government)
ISRAEL Incarceration of Unlawful Combatants Law Israel (2002)
ITALY Laws not yet available
LIECHTENSTEIN Laws not yet available
LUXEMBOURG Laws not yet available
MALTA Public Meetings Ordinance Malta (1931)
Criminal Code (1854)
Police Act (1961)
MONACO (Material provided by the government)
NETHERLANDS Public Assemblies Act Netherlands (1988)
Criminal Procedure Code (1921)
NEW ZEALAND Bill of Rights Act (1990)
Crimes Act (1961)
Criminal Procedure Act (2011)
Policing Act (2008)
NORWAY Criminal Procedure Act (1981)
Penal Code (2002)
Police Act (1995)
Prisons Act (1958)
PORTUGAL Criminal Code (2004)
Terrorism Act (2003)
Enforcement of Measures Involving Deprivation of Liberty Portugal (1979)
SAN MARINO Declaration on Citizens Rights and Fundamental Freedoms San Marino (2002)
SPAIN Criminal Code (2011)
Penal Procedure Code (2010)
(Additional material provided by the government)
SWEDEN Enforcement Code (1981)
Penal Code (1962)
Swedish Code of Judicial Procedure Sweden (1998)
(Additional material provided by the government)
SWITZERLAND Criminal Code (1937)
Criminal Procedure Code (2007)
(Additional material provided by the government)
TURKEY Criminal Code (2004)
Criminal Procedure Code (2005)
Law on Fight Against Terrorism Turkey (1991)
UNITED KINGDOM Prison rules (1999)
Police Act (1996)
Serious Crimes Act (2007)
Criminal Law Act (1967)
Criminal Justice Act (1991)
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act United Kingdom (2001)
Detention Centre Rules United Kingdom (2001)
Immigration and Asylum Act United Kingdom (1999)
Human Rights Act (1998)
Royal Ulster Constabulary (Conduct) Regulations Northern Ireland (2000)
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Model Penal Code United States of America (1962)
No Regional Allocation
KIRIBATI Police Powers and Duties Act Kiribati (2008)
Criminal Procedure Code (1977)
Penal Code (1977)